This is a copy of, which I snagged because it hasn't been updated in several years and might perhaps be deleted at any moment.  The page author is Kelly Hartley, who got her info from a book: Through Indian Eyes.

Animal Properties

Animals are considered to hold certain powers and represent different traits. Individuals' names were compared to something in nature that represented them. Sometimes during a vision quest, the individual would encounter the animal or other natural being which would would protect them and that individual could then learn how to adopt the power/trait of that animal. Some names would come from some event in life that would stand out and then the individual would be compared with a particular animal. Listed below are some of the animals and other items that I have gathered information on, alot from the book "Animal-speak." Not all tribes felt the same way, but it does seem that the traits tended to be comparable from tribe to tribe and also from individual to individual. And I do believe that a child's name will affect him/her later in life. When a totem is mentioned, this is when a particular animal has come into your life to teach you something, not necessarily your guide. When one has its medicine it is meant that they have learned from their animal those positive (and even negative) strengths from that animal and has learned how to apply them to life.

Antelope-This animal represents metal agility and quick wittedness that helps one survive the most difficult of environments. When an antelope shows up as a totem, one may need to become more thickskinned, or maybe even come out of hiding. All antelopes have great speed. Those with the antelope's medicine will usually have a quick wit and know how to communicate these thoughts effectively. They will also have a great curiousity and their minds and imaginations are always active. The antelope will signal danger to others and mostly depend on sight. They usually have a sense of danger and as long as they pay attention to it, they will escape unharmed and can avoid a lot others seem to go through. The males usually have large harems. The female usually has twins and will give birth to them in different sopts. For protection, the mother will usually stay at a distance from the young, except at times of nursing. The fawns are born with very little scent, therefore as long as the mother does not touch them, they can go undetected by predators. The antelope can go for very long periods withuot drinking, and some will even go a lifetime, it gets its water from the plants it feeds upon. This gives those with its medicine the ability to withdraw necessities from whatever environment one lives in.

Armadillo-This little creature is most vulnerable when it exposes their undersides (or inner workings). The armadillo has the ability to protect without causing undue harm to others. The armadillo will usually fall asleep while sunning their undersides, leaving themselves vulnerable. It will protect itself by rolling up into a ball, covering the underside. One with this animal as a totem probably needs to learn when to expose their emotions and when to keep them covered. It has a powerful sense of smell and can teach one forms of discrimination. They only pair for mating and then go on their way. The gestation period is around 8 to 9 months, but in times of distress, can carry the unborn up to 2 1/2 years. It can move quickly and is a good swimmer. It can even walk on the bottom of streams.

Badger-This quick creature is frightening and can be dangerous to all small creatures. It is considered to be a healer, knowing how to use herbs and roots. One with the medicine is usually open and hows much knowledge of other animals. They can usually see beneath the surface of things and people. They are active both night and day and live primarily on rodents, at times storing them in their homes for later consumption. It is basically unsociable and does not relate with others well. Those with its medicine often will teach through stories rather than directly. The father will sometimes help with the raising of the young, but prefers to be alone. They are comfortable with themselves and are very reliant. The badger is ferocious and never gives up.

Bat-This was the night watcher, able to know the smallest of details. He is good at playing games because of his superior dodging qualities. The bat as a totem, usually helps with facing some of your greatest fears-it's time to die and leave some aspect of your life behind. This is usually not negative, it will help to leave the thing behind that is no longer helping you. It should remind to us to face our fears. If not, the fears can spread and overcome us. The bat is a social animal and lives in flocks. Those wit the bat medicine has great auditory perceptions and most will find that they can discern hidden messages. Listen as much to what is being said as well as what is not being said. One should be able to determine truth behind another's words.

Bear-There are many different stories of the bear. But it was always considered powerful and, in most cases, a healer. The bear is tempermental and can be forced into aggression without too much warning. He represents individuality, supporting one's self, not depending on others for their needs. They are also considered as dreamers. When one wears a bear claw, he is considered brave, powerful and wise. They have always been considered related to humans. The bear will eat most anything and actually eats less meat than many other carnivores. The bear as a totem can teach us how to turn inward to find what is needed. While in its deep sleep, the kidneys shut down, giving any diseased kidney time to heal. This is part of the bear medicine. All bears are astonishly swift and all can climb. As a totem, one should remember to keep their child inside alive and one should nit try to hide away all the time. Cubs are born during their deep sleep and are kept safe during the winter at their most vulnerable time. Black bears are extremly playful even as adults. The brown bear is usually solitary. The grizzly is known for its strength and ferocity, but is not usually aggressive. The polar bear is by far the most outstanding hunter. They have no fear and is the most aggresive of all bears. It's only enemy is man. All bears love honey and one should remember to get as much sweetness out of life as possible.

Beaver-The beaver was considered the best at gathering its resources together and then using them to build what was needed. It is an excellent swimmer and can stay submerged for up to 15 minutes. Wtaer is associated with emotions and this can show us how to manage them. The beaver family is close and will mate with only one other for life. They are master home builders and have quite amazingly intricate canals in their home. And they keep this in constant repair. They work together as a team to down a tree. One will keep watch while it rests while the other is chewing. Its habits are helpful to the environment by opening up tracks of bushes for food to deer and others. It also helps make farmland for humans by their dams. And when a beaver leaves its home, it will drain and leave rich soil. Beavers should act as a reminder to act upon our dreams to make them a reality.

Bobcat-Also known as the wild cat, it has tufts of hair on its ears and sideburns. It is a solitary animal and those with it as a totem often find themselves in the same situation. One should come to terms with that, learning how to be alone but not lonely. The females usually have a small territory, but the male will move through many others. Once mating is accomlished, they each will go their separate ways. Since the bobcat is a solitary animal, they will find their friends tend to share secrets with them. It is important to keep their confidence and not tell what they know about others., as this will tend to be found out quickly. One with bobcat medicine has the ability to turn on and off creative forces. They will know how to utilize life forces silently but powerfully. Their medicine is always strongest when others do not know of it. As a totem, one should learn when, to whom and how much to speak. They should be cautious with what they share as things tend to be blown out of proportion. The bobcat has keen eyesight, excellent hearing, and sensitive whiskers making it a wonderful nighttime hunter. One with its medicine will be most effective at night. They will hear what is not being said. Others are usually not comfortable in the presence of one with bocat medicine because they know that things are being heard and seen that they don't want known. This makes the bobcat person an excellent couselor or even a manipulator. They are able to trust their own sense and unless there is a logical reason to say otherwise, it is usually right. The bobcat is not very fast, but can leap great distances. The mother will start training her young early and by about seven months the houng have learned to unt alone and around nine month they have left the family. Those with the medicine usually learn quickly and thoroughly and usually they and their yuong will become strong and independent.

Buffalo-The buffalo had meaning different representations. It has been considered sacred by all the Plains Indians due to the fact that their very lives depended on these four-legged brothers. It is probably considered the most sacred of all animals in the US along with the eagle. One with its medicine knows they do not have to struggle in order to survive if the right action was joined with the right prayer. By uniting and divine appropriately, everything that is needed will be available. The humps of a buffalo symbolized stored forces, available if we know how to tap into the resources. Since this hump is at the shoulder, this should remind us that we need to use our own efforts. The buffalo is very unpredictable and can be dangerous. As a totem, this should remind one that you should keep well grounded as you begin to work toward greater abundances. The bison will also follow the easiest path. If we follow the correct balance, physical as well as spiritual, the way should be easy. The path will open and flow easily. One should not push or force their way through, as the buffalo usually only does this with snow to push it out of the way to get to the grass.

Cougar-This stealthy animal, once found throughout the majority of the US, was also known for leadership and courage. They are very sure of themselves, not taking any unnecessary steps and usually stalks the easier prey. They should not be confused with leopards or jaguars, but they do share many of the same characteristics. The cougar is also known as puma, mountain lion, panther (though panther is actually a leopard), or catamount. If a cougar comes as a totem, it is time to learn about power, trials have usually already come, now it's time to assert. Most cougars learn by trial and error which strengthens them and hones their skills. One will find that people will not like your assertions. But don't allow others to keep you stationary, stretch your muscles and show your capabilities. Those with the cougar medicine are usually attacked by others, especially by those who have grown comfortable with the status quo and do not wish to see you grow. And these may never admit when you do grow. A cougar will leap at opportunities. Since the deer is the cougars favorite prey, one should remember that power can be asserted gently. It should teach decisiveness in the use of personal power. It does not hesitate and when threatened will go for the most vulnerable place. Thsoe with cougar medicine control of their life and circumstances most effectively.

Coyote-As is common knowledge, this playful trickster was always getting into mischief, but usually because of his curious and helpful nature. He is considered to know a lot about life and we can still learn from him today. He is amazingly adaptable, but his power does not always work. Even though its not working, it serves a purpose. There is always hidden wisdom where the coyote is concerned. The coyote is playful and loves to have fun. Even though the coyote is skillful, it will look for ways to do things without use of their own skill, trying to find shortcuts. It should remind us not to be too serious, and anything is possible. The coyote hunts in teams and have a well-organized system. The chase occurs in relays. While one coyote rests, another gives chase. One with the coyote medicine has the ability to stimulate cooperation to accomplish important tasks in the most efficient manner. The coyote has even teamed up wtih badgers and hunt together, reflecting the coyote's ability to adapt to the situation. They have their dens anywhere, but prefers a hillside near water. They often return to the same den to have their litter, but rarely uses the den year-round. Those with the coyote medicine do not limit themselves to one place and looks for mental stimulation and usually require a lot of it. The coyote has a close-knit family and sometimes mate for life. The father is very conscientious and participates in the care and raising of the young. Both parents train the young in hunting. The male cares for the female while she is pregnant, and if the mother dies during the raising of the young, he will take over.

Deer-This loving animal was known for its gentleness, ability to move quickly and gracefully, and always on the alert to sense danger. The mule deer is a wanderer, while the caribou migrates twice a year. The female deer will stay with the young during the first few days with little movement. After this, the young can usually stand and follow its mother about. The doe fawn usually stays with its mother for about a year while the buck usually leaves after a few months. The father takes no part in the rearing of the young. A deer's senses are very acute. It is especially effective at detecting contrasts and edges in dim light.

Deermouse-See mouse.

Elk-Full of strength and agility, he represents the need to be able to achieve personal freedom. It can run at a fast trotting pace for long periods of time. As a totem, the elk may be showing you to pace yourself. Few elks are loners or solitary, they congregate and live in herds, staying mostly with their own gender. If one show up as a totem, it may be reflecting the need for companionship. Herds usually have lookouts which will sound alarms through long whistles. There is always a group interaction occurring. Elks even use babysitters. One or two will care for the young while the mother wanders for food. They will defend with their sharp hoofs. They are extremely protective. They do not migrate much and can withstand the severe cold. But they will go where vegetation is more accessible.

Fox-Full of cunning and playfulness, he is a provider that has the intelligence needed for getting through difficult situations. They are also creatures of the night, but is often visible at the times of dawn and dusk. Their large ears help keep them cook during the summer. Their color is used as camouflage and this helps them remain relatively unseen. One with the fox medicine can blend in with the surroundings, come an dgo unnoticed, move silently without revealing their intentions, and through this can see and hear things that otherwise would not have been noticed. Since the tail remains horizontal while running and is used as a rudder, one should be able to make sharp turns in life with ease. The tail is used for insulation during the cold, their medicine teaches how to stay warm and cozy during times of coldness, including relationships. The thickest of the fur makes the fox look bigger than it really is. Though the fox does not like water, it is still an excellent swimmer. They have tremendous stamina, an ability they can bring to others. As a totem, one must learn to pace themselves through life and learn to move straightforward. The fox can also run up trees if necessary reflecting the use of new resources. Their hearing is very acute and can hear a mouse squeal over 150 yards away. Foxes are color blind, but have a great ability to see varying shades of light and darkness, giving the ability to size up people accurately. But by far the sense of smell is their keenest. It hunts as much with this sense as any other. They are attracted to unusual odors and can determine subtle differences. Most foxes have only one partner and are very monogamous. They also live alone about 5 months out of the year. They are often alone and comfortable in whatever state of life. They like to use the same den year after year and will make it larger and more comfortable. They are territorial, but will return to their home. The fox is a survivor and a great hunter. They have especially good instincts and have learned how to avoid potential danger, going out of its way to do so. They actually have a small appetite, but eat small amounts frequently thoughout the day, storing extra food in its den. They are dainty, graceful and lightfooted in hunting. They hunt more like a cat, leaping upon their prey and holding it with their front paws. Crafty and patient, it will lie in camouflage intensely stydying its prey until just the right moment. The fox will often "charm" its prey by leaping, jumping, rolling and chasing itself, so that it "charms" the prey's attention. It will move closer and closer without recognition and then, the fox leaps and captures its prey.

Groundhog-Also known as the woodchuck, the groundhog is a burrowing rodent and lives at the edges and open areas of woods. Through its tunnelling ability, it reflects how tog et deep within ana rea of interest. It does not fully mature for about 2 years. They make elaborate dens with several exits and storage rooms. Half of its time is spent underground. They leave their bedroom higher than the lowest end of the tunnel so they won't be flooded. They clean up after themselves and even bury their excrement in separate toilet chambers. Groundhogs are non-territorial but will not allow others in their tunnels. They know if a tunnel is presently occupied by fresh dirt being at the entrance. If one shows up as a totem, then you should make sure your boundaries are known. Groundhogs hibernate for 4-6 months. They wil fatten themselves and gorge through summer and late fall. Hibernation usually symbolizes death without dying. It can also represent dreamers.

Horse-Though he was introduced in later years, this glorious creature became know as a powerful animal. He has stamina to last through the heaviest of burdens for long stretches of time. They will gladly bear the burdens of others, even in difficult times. Very seldom does the horse overpower others, though he has the ability. The horse has also brought the world closer together by making travelling much faster. Freedom also came with the horse to learn more about the outside world.

Lynx-Much of the bobcat applies to the lynx. Both are similar and the bobcat is somtimes referred to as the red lynx. The lynx is more chunky and muscular with long legs and furry paws that serve as showshoes during the winter. The mother teaches the young to hunt during the summer and fall. As winter approaches, these skills will be needed for by late winter the family breaks up and the lynx go their own way seeking their new life. The lynx has been given the reputation for supernatural eyesight, being able to see error, falsehood, secrets and other hidden things. Things that you imagine, if the lynx has become a totem, are probably more true that you might think. The lynx can teach how to know the inner workings of others. But one must be careful when when speaking with others. Words can be distorted and if secrets are revealed, it will usually bring quick and strong repercussions.

Mink-This sly creature is known as a great thief.

Moose-Though awkward looking, this strong-headed and uncontrollable animal can withstand long periods of hard times. We should learn self-esteem from him, how to help others grow and learn through positive, not negative reinforcements. The moose is an animal of contradictions: strange, but majestic; looks awkward, but is actually graceful. Predominately solitary except during mating season, the moose has an unique ability to make use of its territory no matter what it is made of. Those with this as their medicine will have the same ability. The moose can also camouflage itself in spite of its great size and power and uses this to their advantage. It can move quickly and quietly which is deceptive by its looks. They have excellent depth perceptions. It can move through great depths of snow and marshes that would hinder many others. They can also plunge deep into a lake and stay submerged for up to a full minute eating while on the bottom. The moose has a highly developed sense of smell and hearing. The grizzly bear is the only enemy the moose fears, but even then, it can outrun and swim the bear.

Mouse-Sneaky and shy, this little creature would stay away from others, keeping his secrets to himself. The deermouse has big eyes and ears. Most mice are nocturnal. The deermouse sees well in darkness, but in sunlight it was act somewhat blind. This is not true of other mice. The deermouse will nest in abandoned squirrel and bird nests, hollow logs, cracks, and crevices. The nest is often globe-shaped, and the entrance will have a door that can be closed for warmth. The male and female work together to remodel the mest and most mice change it often. The deermouse is particular about keeping its fur cleaned and groomed, not so with the house mouse. Though the deer mouse is good about its appearance, it is a sloppy housekeeper. This will tend to be drawn over into those with the mouse medicine. Most mice store food and will search for food all year around. The deer mouse is less destructive than the meadow mouse in regard to crops. All predators feed on mice, therefore mice will usually produce 3 to 4 times a year. The mother cares for the young for about five weeks. Then the young are on their own. When one shows up as a totem, be careful not to be taken up too much with details and step back to see the whole piture.

Otter-Loved for his playfulness, the otter was full of laughter and mischievousness. Otters awaken curiousity and remind us that everythig is interesting if we look at it from the right angle. They always seem to have fun in whatever they are doing. During the summer hours they are mostly in the water. They have large territories and usually mark their homes with a scent. The adult otter has no enemies and protect their young very well. They are fast and agile in the water and can outswim fish. Though they will usually swim away from danger, they may still have to fight and they are ferocious about it. The mother will usually chase the father out of the den when the young are born. After the young are out and about, the father is usually let back in. The young usually have to be taught to swim by the mother.

Panther-The panther can be either leopard or jaguar; the main difference is the jaguar is more powerful and attacks more ferociously. The panther usually embodies aggressiveness and power. And since it usually does its hunting at night (the black panther much more so), most of the creativity and power is during this time. The panther is smaller, but a more intelligent hunter than the lion or tiger. They have over 500 muscles that can be used at will, this can include the mental, physical or spiritual. It is simply a matter of deciding and putting to use those muscles. As a whole, panthers are loners although they do associate with others. But they are more comfortable by themselves and at home. They tend to be drawn to others like them. They have a wonderful gracefulness with the ability to move with ease or freeze entirely. They are quiet when they are stalking, hunting or pursuing. They show silence is a powerful tool. Panthers are excellent sprinters, but tire quickly. One should learn to pace themselves and learn to play as well as work. They should not push too far or too hard on any one task. Those with the panther medicine are usually the first to respond, especially in the work environment where they respond effectively to pressures and deadlines. Panthers only stay together for a short period of time after mating. The female does all the rearing and does not like anyone else involved. The females with the panther as medicine will often find themselves doing likewise-whether out of divorce or simply domineering in that area of the couple's life. All cat's have binocular vision, working each eye independently. Thus those who take the panther medicine will find themselves able to focus better on their life, other people and events. People who are born into the panther medicine will be born with "the lights on," so they must not be disappointed when hearing others tell about their experience when things clicked for them. They should trust their thoughts and inner visions for there probably is a strong foundation in reality. The panther has strong hearing and is conceived as being able to listen to other forms of life. Those with panther medicine will find that their sense of touch is ever increasing (the hairs on a panther are very sensitive). Those with the leopard panther should never confront someone angrily up front for the panther usually attacks from the back. They must stalk patiently, waiting until close enough to strike strong and hard. They don't play when they hunt. those with the jaguar variety will also stalk, but are more powerful. They will simply bite through the bones and can shear the heads off of animals with a single swipe. Individuals with the jaguar variety should be careful when responding for they can hurt without meaning to. The black panther helps us understand how to get good out of darkness and death, eliminating the fears of them both. When a black panther enters you life as a totem, it awakens inner passions and instincts. The panther has also been attributed to Jesus; in Abodazara (early Jewish commentaries on the scripture), it is listed as a surname for the family of Joseph. It also tells how a man was healed "in the name of Jesus ben Panther." Therefore the panther may be saying the old wounds are finally starting to heal or an old issue is going to be resolved. It is also a symbol of awakening to the heroic quest and though depths of degradation (whether self-inflicted or influenced from outside) appear, there is always the promise of light and love to lead us back. When the panther enters as a totem, your journey back is about to begin. The panther holds the promise of rebirth and guardianship throughout, being the extra protection we need in troubling times. It is the symbol of power reclaimed from whatever darkenss within our life has hidden it-whatever has been lost will be replaced by that which is greater, stronger, and more beneficial. The panther will try many different angles before attacking its prey, staying way out to the side to keep the prey from knowing they are moving. It has also been seen that the panther will actually stomp its foot to confuse its prey while stalking. There is also a belief that the panther medicine can give the ability to cause people to see and think as you desire them too, but this comes through self-discipline. The jaguar panther can clumb, run and swim, even better than the tiger. A saying tends to go along with those of the panther medicine-"that which does not kill us makes us stronger."

Porcupine-These are good-natured animals and shuffle along at their own pace. They may look clumsy and slow, but they are excellent climbers. The legs ar short and strong and they have an unique ability to use them to test the strneth of the limbs they may climb upon. Porcupines live mostly in pine forests. They eat the barks of various trees and enjoy blossoms, young leaves, and water lilies. They also have a great craving for salt and will eat anything that has the faint flavor of salt. It seems to enjoy just about anything it does. It has a strong sense of curiosity and seems amazed nd filled with wonder at most things it encounters. Although it has poor eyesight, it remains extremely curious, and not overly cautious in response to its visual limitation. The quills protect all the body except face, underside and tail. When threathened the porcupine will tuck its face between its front legs to protect it. They live in hollow logs, caves, and holes. In the winter, they will spend a lot of time in trees which is easier than trying to shuffle through the snow. Only the mother raises the young. Those with its medicine have a tendency to stick it to people sharply and intensely if aggravated. They have a knack for saying or doing that which will cause the most hurt for the longest time. They will not always ie it, but when they do the point is well taken. Porcupines can teach you how to resist the barbs of others and how to enjoy life and maintain a sense of wonder about it, no matter the condition.

Possum-Possums teach us how to use appearances. Sometmies it is necessary to "play dead." It can also help you see when others are putting up masks. The possum is an excellent actor and will play the part needed to escape danger. They are nocturnal animals and raise their young in a pouch. They are blind when born but are still able to clumb up into the pouch immediately after birth. They remain there for about one month.

Prairie Dog-Other than the wolf, the prairie dog exhorts community more than any other animal. The community is always filled with activity. Their town is a network of underground tunnels. The members depend on each other. Each section of a town is inhabited by members of separate "clans." They keep the doorways clear of weeds so visibility is wide for watching for predators. They are very sociable animals and greet each other by kissing an dhugging. They touch their teeth together with mouths open. They love to show affection. The prairie dog actually helps the environment by aerating the soil and allowing moisture to get underneath allowing more plants to grow.

Rabbit-Though alert and nurturing, this little furry creature was considered by some as being full of tricks to obtain what he, not only needed, but wanted. The Cherokees have stories of the first rabbit who no one would attempt to outsmart everyone, but was usually beaten by his own game. However, he is considered a great escape artist. The rabbit is known for its ability to procreate, its fleetness, its ability ot make great leaps and hops. They are mostly found in thickets and tall grasses, active both day and night, bur mostly visible at dawn and dusk. They can have 2 to 5 litters per year, keeping their numbers high since they are preyed upon so much. The mother will feed the young in morning and at evening, while feeding herself during the day. This protects the young by not drawing attention to them. Within one month, the young are on their own. The rabbit has a great defense ability. They often create forms by digging shallow bowls open in front and back to use for hiding and resting. They can avoid being seen by freezing and blending in with their environment. They double back, making quick turns, and are extremely fast. They can teach how to recognize signs.

Raccoon-This resourceful bandit is considered shy and secretive, but not afraid to speak his mind when cornered. It is one of the most adabtable animals and is even able to live within the city. Their paws are dexterous and can be used almost as well as hands. They like to slosh their hand and food in water before eating. They will eat most anything, but usually eats mostly vegetables and fruit. Raccoons are extremly curious and love to explore. It is an expert at disguise and secrecy. They do not hibernate, but go into a heavy sleep during the winter, living off their body fat. They are courageous and can be quite ferocious. They are deceptive and agile and are experts at self-defense. They are very sociable animals but not found in large groups.

Ram-Determined, this animal was known to some as new beginnings.

Skunk-Causing intensity, this little animal would always be on guard and ready to do what was needed to defend himself. The odor of a skunk was considered to keep off diseases, therefore, the Cherokees would remove the scent bag and hang it over their doors. It is a very powerful totem/medicine, people who have this medicine are usually quite respected for themselves and what they can do.They can teach how to give respect, expect respect, and demand respect. It helps you recognize your own abilities and how to assert them. The skunk does not get out of the way of any animal, moving along at its own pace, with its own mind. It is self-assured and confident. Their natural enemy is the great horned owl. The skunk is fearless but are also very peaceful. They move lsowly and calmly and will only spray after giving warnings. It will stamp its feet and turn its back to you, then it will raise its tail, and then the skunk will look back over its shoulder. If you are still there, it's usually too late when it sees you over its shoulder! The spray doesn't kill, but can numb the sense and tends to linger for several days on the victim. Skunks have one litter per year, but that usually contains 10 little ones. They can spray from the moment they are born. People with skunk medicine can draw or repel people at will. They are a solitary animal for the most part. They are usually quiet so people with the its medicine usually don't blow their own horns. Skunks are very adaptable and can teach when its best to be notcied and how to go about it most effectively. They are carnivorous, but will eat almost anything and does its hunting at night.

Squirrel-Innocent and playful, this little four-legged friend would prepare amongst his play for hard times.Squirrels are quite sociable but don't like strang squirrels. They have a keen sense of smell and will find their stored caces even if they forget where they buried their nuts. Red squirrels will chatter and scold when strangers appear. They are more aggressive and is usually a better fighter than the gray. The gray squirrel is the most enthusiastic and like all squirrels do not hibernate. It builds its nests in the hollows of trees or in the treetops. The nests are usually ball shaped and the entrance is on the side. They when usually run and avoid fights. All squirrels wrestle for play and are extremely observant and imitative. This is how they learn. They communicate quite well; their bushy tails add to their expressiveness. They will often express emotion through flicks of its tail. Squirrels can teach balance within the circle of gathering and giving out. They are master at preparing and teach work and play go hand in hand.

Weasel-These animals are carnivores and usually have underground homes. They produce a strong musk scent. They are strictly a land carnivore. They kill mice, rodents, and other pests, and stick strictly with natural foods. They require tremendous amounts of food and will eat from 1/3 to 1/2 its weight in food every day. They eat small amounts all day long because they expend a lot of energy. They are great chasers with an excellent sense of smell. They can follow mice into burrows and squeeze through narrow spaces. Weasel medicine can help you get out of tight fixes and to squeeze through and into areas of life that others would not be able to enter. The weasel is graceful, solitary and very silent. Though these people are often loners, they know a lot about people because they go unseen and unheard, even in the company of others. The weasel teaches you to trust your own senses in regard to other people. Ferocity is probably the greatest among the weasel family of all mammals-mothers have been known to attack humans if they feel their young are threatened. They will usually bit their prey at the neck and hang on until the spinal cord is cut. They do not hesitate to attack in some way. Weasel medicine awakens your innate ability for silent and secret observation. It will show you the best techniques for circumventing trouble.

Whale-Considered to be wise, the great creature was considered quite like the buffalo of the Plains to the northeastern people, sustainer of life.

Wolf-A lot is to be learned from this sacred animal about family life. He is loyal and perserveres in the most harsh of times always providing for his family. He is considered a great hunter who never fails by the Cherokee. Though he is family oriented, he will maintain his own individuality. He will go out of his way to keep from fighting, by showing his teeth, growling, etc. He explains himself well through body language and tone inflection. Usually very confident and knows their place. They are friendly, social, and highly intelligent. The wolf is the true spirit of the free and unspoiled wilderness. Wolves are usually not as large as people depict them to be; their fur is what gives this allusion. They are very ritualistic-in as many ways as the human. They live by carefully defined rules and there are specific territories that are sacred. Their social behavior is based on hierarchy and each has its place and function within this hierarchy. Those with the wolf medicine know who they are and how to develop strength, confidence and surety in that they do not have to demonstrate and prove themselves to all. The wolves have a complex communication system. In the nonverbal, they us movement of the head, tail and direct eye contact. They learn the meanings and responses from the time they are pups.Their vocal communications have different howls meaning different things. They also bark, whine, whimper, and growl. Every member of the pack knows its position in relation to others. Wolf packs are not entirely autocratic, nor are they totally democreatic. There are times when both occur, and it is this flexibility which adds to the success of the wolf government. The alpha male and female often mate for life. The entire pack will help with the raising of the young. The wolf of course is a predator and their prey are most often the young, sick or old. Wolves will not waste much time on a healthy adult moose that stands its ground. They will travel great distances in their hunting. They have a stamina and strength that enables them to travel far, and for extended periods. Wolves usually consume all they kill, gorging themselves. They are extremely intelligent and goes out of its way to avoid trouble or danger. Wovles have very keen senses particularly that of smell. But its hunting depends primarily on hearing. The wolf can make quick and firm emotional attachments.